Bangladesh at a Glance
BangladeshBangladesh is a low-lying, riverine country located in South Asia. Bangladesh appeared as an independent country on 16 December 1971 after nine months bloody war against Pakistan Occupational Army and their associates who betrayed with Bengali nation.
Bangladesh is situated in South Asia, to the north of Bay of Bengal. In contrast, Bay of Bengal is to the south of Bangladesh. The Bay of Bengal, the largest bay in the world
The official name of Bangladesh is the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
Land area: 1,47,570 km2 or 56,977 mi²
Population: 16 crores (around)
Capital city: Dhaka
Other large cities: Chittagonj, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet, Comilla, Rangpur
Administrative Unit: Division, District, City-corpotaion, Upazilla, Union, Ward
Divisions: 8, Districts: 64, City-corporation: 11
Monetary unit (Currency): Taka
National Assembly: Jatiya Sangsad
Central Bank: Bangladesh Bank
Neighboring country: India, Myanmar
Border of Bangladesh: Bangladesh and India share a 4,096-kilometer long international border and Bangladesh and Myanmar share a common border of 271 kilometers. Assam, Tripura, Mizoram, Meghalaya, and West Bengal are five provinces of India touches Bangladesh.
Climate: Bangladesh has a tropical monsoon climate subjected by wide seasonal variations. The six seasons are − Summer, Rainy Season, Autumn, Late Autumn, Winter, Spring.
Organs of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh
As indicated in the constitution of the republic it comprises three basic organs:
- Legislative Branch
- Executive Branch
- Judicial Branch
Legislative Branch: The 300 members are elected by election at best every 5 years. It consists of 350 members at present. The person at the age of 18 can vote.
Executive Branch: Chief of state−President, Head of government−Prime Minister and the other Ministers form the executive brance.
Judicial branch: Supreme Court is the highest judiciary body. It is composed of the High Court Division and the Appellate Division.
1947 – British colonial rule in India ended and emerged two countries- India and Pakistan.
1952 – Bengali students in East Pakistan stood up and protested against the Pakistani government for declaring Urdu as the national language.
1966 – Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman announced Six-Point demands of autonomy.
1969 – Mass Upsurge started with the student unrest of 1968 against the tyrannical rule of Ayub Khan, President of Pakistan.
1971 – Independence after a nine-month war, with India backing the Bengali nationalists against Pakistan.
1973 – First parliamentary elections give the Awami League a landslide victory.
1975 – A military coup sees founding president Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and most of his family members killed, putting an end to civilian rule.
21 February: 21 February is our language day and Shaheed day.
7 March: It is the day of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman’s Historical speech.
23 March: Bangabandhu announced six points on this day.
25 March: The raider Pakistani troops launched the butchery on Bengali on this day.
26 March: Our independence day. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared independence on thisd day.
17 April: The Provisional Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh was established on this day.
17 September: Bangladesh joined the United Nations on September 17, 1974.
17 November: International Mother Language Day was first announced by UNESCO on 17 November 1999.
16 December: Our victory day. On this day the commanding officer of the Pakistani Forces surrendered with his forces to the Allied forces commander Lt. Gen. Jagjit Singh Aurora.
Bengali is a language spoken natively in Bangladesh. The people of Bangladesh and parts of western India speaks in bangla. It is spoken by about 300 million native speakers. Bengali is also an official language in the West African nation of Sierra Leone. They adopted Bangla in honor of Bangladesh’s role in UN peacekeeping efforts in their country.
International Mother Language Day is a global annual observance held on 21 February. The day is observed worldwide to promote awareness of linguistic, cultural diversity and multilingualism.
* Language Movement began in 1948 and reached its height in the killing of 21 February 1952.
* Salam, Barkat, Rafiq, Safiq and Jabbar and other unnamed martyrs sacrificed their life for mothe tongue on 21 February in 1952.
* In 1948, the Government of the Dominion of Pakistan intended Urdu as the sole national language of Pakistan.
* Mr Dhirendra Nath Dutta demanded Bangla as the state language first in the then Pakistani assembly on 23 February 1948.
* On 24 March 1948, President Muhammed Ali Jinnah at the Curzon Hall in his convocation message of University of Dhaka declared Urdu will be the only state language of Pakistan.
* The students of Dhaka University protested Jinnah’s declaration by uttering “no no” with loud voice.
Soon the student leader and politicians formed Rastravasa Sangram Parishad to move for Bangla to be the state language.
* Finally on 21 February 1952 a number of students campaigned and made a procession for the recognition of Bangla as one of the state languages of Pakistan. Police fird upon them brutally which killed many of them.
* In 1999, UNESCO declared 21 February as International Mother Language Day.
|Liberation War of Bangladesh|
|Date||March 26, 1971 – December 16, 1971|
|Result||• Surrender of Pakistan
• Independence of Bangladesh
* Pakistani troops killed thousands of people on the night of March 25 1971.
* On that day Pakistani troops launched the massacre called Operation Searchlight.
* Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared independece of Bangladesh on 26 March 1971.
* During Bangladesh War of Independence the Bangladesh Forces were divided in the geographical area of Bangladesh into eleven sectors.
* The general people of Bangladesh fought bravely with Pakistani troops and their collaborators to make the country independent.
* India joined with freedom fighter on 6 December 1971 to help them .
* During the war, three million people were killed and more than 200,000 women were raped by Pakistani troops and their collaborators.
* More than 93,000 Pakistani troops surrendered at the end of the war.
* Bangladesh got its independece on 16 December 1971.
Background of Liberation War
Mass Upsurge 1969
* Mass Upsurge 1969 started with the student unrest of 1968 against the tyrannical rule of Ayub Khan.
* Ayub Khan was the President of Pakistan then.
* The movement soon surrounded the whole of the then East Pakistan.
* People from the all sectors as farmers, artisans, workers joined the movement together.
* This mass upsurge was the greatest mass awakening against the tyranny and discrimination of west pakistan ruler.
Sheikh Mujib’s 7 March Speech
Sheikh Mujib’s speech started: “Today, I appeared before you with a heavy heart. You know everything and understand as well. We tried our best but the streets of Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, and Rangpur have been dyed red with the blood of our brethren. People of Bangladesh today want freedom. They want to survive. They want to have their rights. What wrong did we do?”
He mentioned four conditions for joining the National Assembly on 25 March:
- The immediate lifting of martial law;
- The immediate withdrawal of all military personnel to their barracks;
- The immediate transfer of power to elected representatives of the people;
- A proper inquiry into the loss of life during the conflict.
Key Personalities of Liberation War
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (17 March 1920 – 15 August 1975) is the founding leader of Bangladesh and our nation’s father. He is popularly known as the Bangabandhu. He declared our independence. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is the first president of Bangladesh.
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and almost his entire family was killed on 15 August in 1975 by some traitors and those villainous people who prompted as collaborator in the time of liberation war..
Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani (12 December 1880 – 17 November 1976) was a rural-based politician renowned for selflessness and solidarity with the oppressed.
Syed Nazrul Islam (1925 – 3 November 1975) was a senior leader of the Awami League. During the Bangladesh Liberation War, he was declared as the Vice-President of Bangladesh by the Provisional Government. He served as the Acting President in the absence of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
Muhammad Mansur Ali (1919 – 3 November 1975) was a founding leader of Bangladesh, served as the Finance Minister of Bangladesh by the Provisional Government. Mansur also served as the Prime Minister of Bangladesh in 1975.
On 3 November in 1975, four leaders of the wartime national government—acting president Syed Nazrul Islam, prime minister Tajuddin Ahmed and cabinet ministers M Mansur Ali and AHM Qamruzzaman—were brutally killed inside Dhaka Central Jail. This day is commemorated as Jail Hotta Dobos.
Awards for Freedom Fighters
* A total of 677 participants of the Freedom Fighters of Independence received gallantry awards for their service and bravery.
* Four categories of heroism awards were created after the war in Bangladesh.
These were —
- Bir Sreshtho
Bir Sreshtho is the highest military award of bangladesh.
- Captain Mohiuddin Jahangir (Army)
- Sepoy Hamidur Rahman (Army)
- Sepoy Mostafa Kamal (Army)
- Engineroom Artificer Ruhul Amin (Navy)
- Flight Lieutenant Matiur Rahman (Air Force)
- Lance Naik Munshi Abdur Rouf (Bangladesh Rifles)
- Lance Naik Nur Mohammad Sheikh (Bangladesh Rifles)
All the 7 recipients of this award were killed in action during the Bangladesh War of Independence in 1971.
- 2. Bir Uttom
Bir Uttom is the second highest award for individual gallantry in Bangladesh after the Bir Sreshtho. It is the highest gallantry award for a living individual. A total of 69 people have been awarded the Bir Uttom.
- Bir Bikrom
A total of 175 fighters have been awarded for their heroic actions at the Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971.
- Bir Protik
A total of 426 people have received the award.
Constitution of Bangladesh
* The Constitution of Bangladesh is the final law of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
* It was adopted on November 4, 1972.
* It came into force on 16 December of the same year.
* The constitution of Bangladesh is divided into 11 parts, 153 articles and there are 7 schedules.
* The constitution has declared Bangladesh a Republic.
* The key four priciples of our constitution are nationalism, socialism, democracy and secularism.
* As per the constitution our country is committed to the principles of democracy and human rights, rule of law, freedom of movement, assembly and association, freedom of religion and international peace and harmony.
* Violation the constitution is treated as a punishable crime.
Rivers of Bangladesh
Bangladesh is a riverine country. She has many beautiful small and big rivers.The Main river of Bangladesh are Padma, Meghna, Jamuna, Surma, Karnaphuli, Atri etc.
The major three of the rivers are:
- The Padma River originates from the Gangotri Glacier of the Himalaya.
- Padma is the distributary of Ganga.
- It is separated from Ganga mainstream at Farakka barrage, West Bengal.
- The Ganges flow through India and Bangladesh towards the Bay of Bengal. The Ganges is known as the Padma in Bangladesh.
- It Flows as the name Padma till Chandpur in Bangladesh where it meets Meghna river.
- The river follows over Nawabganj, Rajshahi, Pabna, kushtia, Faridpur, Rajbari and Chadpur district in Bangladesh.
- Barak river in India divides into two streams Surma and Kushiyara in Karimganj district in Assam.
- Surma and Kushiyara rejoin at Kishoreganj district in Bangladesh to be known as Meghna.
- Upto Chandpur in Bangladesh, it is known as Upper Meghna.
- After meeting Padma in Chandpur, it is known as Lower Meghna.
- Meghna flows into the Bay of Bengal in Bhola district.
- Meghna is one of the most important rivers in Bangladesh. It is the widest river.
- The Meghna River originates from Lucy hill in Asam. It flows through our country
- Jamuna is the distributary of Brahmaputra.
2. It is separated from the mainstream at the point where Brahmaputra meets Teesta in Bangladesh and known as Jamuna.
3. It flows as the name Jamuna till Goalundo ghat in Bangladesh where it
meets Padma river.
- It then flows into the Bay of Bengal as the Meghna River.
Forests of Bangladesh
Types of Forest in Bangladesh:
Forests of Bangladesh can be grouped into three broad categories. They are−
- Mangrove forest
- Tropical evergreen and semi evergreen forest
- Tropical moist deciduous forests
- Village forest.
Sundarban (Mangrove forest of Bangladesh)
The Sunderban is the largest tidal mangrove forest in the world. The forest covers 10,000 square kilometers in total. Bangladesh engages in 6000 kilometers and rest of the part settles in India.
Sundari is the most important tree species in the Sundarban. In addition, there are Gewa (Excoecaria agallocha), Baen (Avecinnia offcecinalis), Passur (Xylocarpur mekongensis), Keora (Sonneratia apetala) etc. There are some non-wood forest products like Golpata (Nypa fruticans).
Royal Bengal Tiger, Leopards, Rhinoceros, Wild Buffaloes, Wild Hogs, Wild Cats, Barasinga, Spotted Deer, Hog Deer, Barking Deer, and Monkeys are the principal varieties of wild animals found in Sundarbans”. Besides, there are many kinds of Birds, Reptiles and Insectes found in Sundarban.
Tropical evergreen and semi evergreen forest
Tropical evergreen and semi evergreen forests are extended over Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet.
Tropical moist deciduous forests
Deciduous Forest a forest where the major number of trees shed their leaves during winter or dry season. By this way that trees reduce the loss of water through transpiration. Sal trees are the main trees of our Deciduous Forest. These forests in our country are now distributed in Dhaka, Mymensingh, Nawabganj, Rangpur, Dinajpur and Comilla regions.
Forests governed by local communities are called village forests. village forests can be of various types. That types depend of reginal variation. Such forests have a very important role to our forest economy.
Agriculture of Bangladesh
Agriculture is the largest employment sector in Bangladesh. It employs almost half of the total labour force. Especially the village people earn their living by agriculture. rice, jute, tea, wheat, mango are our main cash crops.
Rice is our staple food. It grows all over Bangaldesh. About three-fourth of our agricultural land is used for rice cultivation. Bangladesh was the fourth largest rice producer in the world. It can be grown and harvested three times a year. Aman, IRRI, BIRRI are the main varities of rice now grown in Bangladesh.
Jute was formerly known as the golden fibre of Bangladesh. Because it was the main cash crop for our country. Jute is cultivated in the rainy season in wetland. Jute is grown in almost all the districts of Bangladesh. Faridpur, Tangail, Jessore, Dhaka, Sirajganj, Bogra, and Jamalpur are the better part for the cultivation of Jute.
Bangladesh is still an important tea producing country. Tea is the second largest export cash crop of Bangladesh after jute. Tea is grown in the northeast reason. Highlands, temperate climate, humidity and heavy rainfall are good for tea cultivation. We have almost two hundred tea gardens so far.
For cultivation we need better flood control and irrigation. In addition to crops, Fishing and Poultry have a great role in our agro-based economy.
Important Universities of Bangladesh
|University of Dhaka||DU||1921||Dhaka|
|University of Rajshahi||RU||1953||Rajshahi|
|Bangladesh Agricultural University||BAU||1961||Mymensingh|
|Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology||BUET||1962||Dhaka|
|University of Chittagong||CU||1966||Chittagong|
|Jahangirnagar University||JU||1970||Savar, Dhaka|
|Shahjalal University of Science and Technology||SUST||1986||Sylhet|
|Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University||BSMMU||1998||Dhaka|
The University of Dhaka (DU) is the oldest university in Bangladesh. Dhaka University was established in 1921 during the British rule. It has made very important contributions to the history of Bangladesh. After the Partition of India, Dhaka University became the focal point of all progressive and democratic movements in Pakistan. Its students and teachers played the central role in the rise of Bengali nationalism and the independence of Bangladesh.
Visiting Places of Bangladesh
Bangladesh’s tourist attractions comprise historical and monuments, resorts, beaches, picnic spots, forests and hill tracts, wildlife of various species.
- Cox’s Bazar
- Patenga beach
- Foy’s Lake
- Heritage Park
- St. Martin’s Island
- Bandarban District
- Khagrachari District
- Sajek Valey
- Lalbagh Fort
- Ahsan Manzil
- Jatiya Sangshad
- Jatiyo Smriti Soudho
- Kantajew Temple
- Somapura Mahavihara
- Kuakata Beach
- Monpura, Carfasion (Vola)
- Lawachara National Park
- Madhabkunda waterfall